Property Archive

  • Advantages Of Video Surveillance Systems

    When you’re ready to install a digital video surveillance security camera system to your home or business you can rest assured you’re about to feel a whole lot safer. People install these security camera systems for so many different reasons. No matter what your reason, the one thing everyone can agree about is how good you feel when your property is protected. You can install one of these security camera systems to monitor the activities of your business while you are away. You can also monitor the activities of your home, such as the safety of your children or your pets while you are away. You can even arrange for a motion detector to alert you via pager or e-mail when there is a disturbance at your home or business.

    Digital video security camera systems are easy to install. In fact, it takes less than a few minutes to determine the system that’s right for you, and have it installed in your home or business. Some government security camera systems take a little longer to install, as they tend to be more complicated, and tend to cover a much larger area.
    The great thing about digital video is the quality of the signal that is transmitted and recorded. Another great thing is variety of features available with digital video recorders, such as: High resolution Hard Disk Storage, Date/Time or Event or Segment search, built in multiplexer that allows simultaneous recording of multiple security cameras. Both of these factors provide you with a top of the line security camera system for protecting your property.

    Availability: There was a time when video surveillance was used only in big malls and shopping centers. These days, you can see CCTVs almost any place you go, from a small shop to homes and religious centers. Thus, they ensure greater public safety at a fraction of the cost.

    Real time monitoring: Traditionally, large companies have always enjoyed the benefits of video surveillance manned by security experts. In the past, the events captured on video were used to uncover important information and act as evidence after the event had occurred. But, newer technologies allow users to monitor and respond to alarms in real time.

    Remote access: One of the biggest benefits of modern video surveillance programs is the fact that they can be accessed from a number of remote locations through various devices like a PC, PDA or even the cell phone. So, no matter where you are, you get the message.
    Proactive: A new network of video surveillance programs has allowed organizations to take proactive control of their security. With these changes, for the first time, individuals and businesses have an opportunity to be actively involved in their risk management and loss mitigation. Many businesses are therefore introducing highly sophisticated video surveillance programs so they can protect people and assets, minimize liabilities and avoid trivial lawsuits.

    High quality images: Another important advantage of using video surveillance is the ready availability of evidential quality video and audio footage. In the unfortunate situation where security has been breached, this evidence becomes vital in nailing down perpetrators and collecting information.

    Video surveillance becomes even more powerful when companies and organizations move away from implementing surveillance as an end in itself to working out a broad policy of how video can be used strategically in the day to day running of the business. When video surveillance becomes a part of the organizational culture, businesses can realize significant benefits in terms of security, employee productivity and improved bottom lines.

    Protecting Security Cameras from the weather isnt just about stopping them from becoming damaged, theres also the issue of image quality. If weather conditions are likely to become severe, or lighting conditions are poor, Infra Reds can offer a solution. They need very little light to capture images. Many top end Outdoor Cameras will auto adjust shutter speed, in response to changes in light conditions.. Thus providing a more superior image quality. Another feature available is day and night mode, with these Cameras you can manually change settings, depending on light conditions. Not so convenient as the auto adjusting models, but very useful nevertheless. Usually, these models have the Infra Red function ability, and also have motion detectors. Many Outdoor Cameras fall short with regards to night viewing. Pan / Tilt cameras will provide much more coverage, eliminating blind spots, the main disadvantage of fixed cameras. It depends on your needs, but there are certain features which would be best to invest in. If you really want to ensure your homes protected.

    When you’re ready to install a digital video surveillance security camera system to your home or business you can rest assured you’re about to feel a whole lot safer. People install these security camera systems for so many different reasons. No matter what your reason, the one thing everyone can agree about is how good you feel when your property is protected. You can install one of these security camera systems to monitor the activities of your business while you are away. You can also monitor the activities of your home, such as the safety of your children or your pets while you are away. You can even arrange for a motion detector to alert you via pager or e-mail when there is a disturbance at your home or business.

    Digital video security camera systems are easy to install. In fact, it takes less than a few minutes to determine the system that’s right for you, and have it installed in your home or business. Some government security camera systems take a little longer to install, as they tend to be more complicated, and tend to cover a much larger area.
    The great thing about digital video is the quality of the signal that is transmitted and recorded. Another great thing is variety of features available with digital video recorders, such as: High resolution Hard Disk Storage, Date/Time or Event or Segment search, built in multiplexer that allows simultaneous recording of multiple security cameras. Both of these factors provide you with a top of the line security camera system for protecting your property.

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  • Buying Singapore Public Housing At Subsidy – Understanding The Government Cpf Rules.

    Central Provident Fund (CPF) was started on 1 July 1995 and is administered by CPF Board. It is a compulsory comprehensive social security network which aims to provide working Singapore Citizen (SC) and Singapore Permanent Resident (SPR) with sense of security and confidence in their old age. Your monies in the CPF’s can be used to fund the purchase of Singapore Public Housing – by Housing Development Board (HDB) resale flat in the open market. To buy HDB resale flat at subsidy, you can apply for CPF Housing Grant for the resale flat purchase, if you meet the criteria set by HDB resale and CPF rulings.

    Generally you are not eligible for CPF Housing Grant Scheme in cases where you have previously enjoyed a housing subsidy from HDB, or you and all co-applicants are undischarged bankrupts, or own any of the private residential property (including HUDC flat, Executive Condominium), houses, building, land and commercial property in both local or overseas, or have not disposed of these properties within 30 months prior to the application, or if you are buying a 1-room flat or a resale flat of any flat type that has been announced for redevelopment under the Selective Enbloc Redevelopment Scheme.

    If you are cleared by the prerequisites, you are entitled to apply one of the CPF Housing Grant Scheme, and later upgrade to another scheme if further qualified for higher grant. The catch is, you need to commit 5 years of minimum occupation period before you are eligible to sell your resale flat in the open market. Also you will be required to pay a resale levy should you choose to purchase another flat directly from HDB. The amount of resale levy is ranged from $15,000 for 2-room flat to the highest of $50,000 for Executive flat.

    There are 7 CPF Housing Grant Schemes targeting to different eligible buyers. Family Grant Scheme is cater for married couples who are first-timer applicants. You must be Singapore Citizen (SC), at least 21 years old, must include at least one listed occupant who is SC or Singapore Permanent Resident (SPR), and form a family nucleus such as your spouse and children (if any), or your parents and siblings, or your children under your legal custody (if widowed or divorced). The average monthly household income ceiling must not exceed $8,000. Under this scheme, SC with SC household shall entitle CPF subsidy of $30,000 while SC with SPR household shall entitle $20,000.

    Higher-Tier Family Grant Scheme is targeting the same recipients as mentioned above, but choose to buy a resale flat near their parents’/married child’s house, where parents are staying with you in the resale flat, or your parents and married child are the owner-occupant of property in the same town or within 2 km. SC with SC household shall entitle more CPF subsidy of $40,000 while SC with SPR household shall entitle $30,000.

    The CPF grants are flexible for upgrade with the changing household profile. For instance, when your SPR family member eventually takes up SC or when you have a SC child, you can enjoy the full housing subsidy by applying for the CPF Top Up Grant to Family Grant. This Top Up Grant is also targeting to Singles SC who subsequently get married. They can apply for the Top-Up Grant for their existing flat or when they buy another resale flat, if their eligibilities matched.

    If your average monthly household income ceiling over the last 1 year is $5,000 and below, you can also apply for the Additional CPF Housing Grant (AHG) Scheme in addition to the eligible Family Grant, Higher-Tier Family Grant, or CPF Top-up Grant. The AHG is meant to give extra financial assistance to people in lower-income brackets. The amount of AHG you will be eligible for is graded based on income ceiling. For examples, if your income ceiling is $1,500 or below, you’ll entitle the AHG of $40,000. The AHG reduce to $5,000 for income ceiling fall between $4,500 and $5,000,

    Government has comprehensive schemes to assist SC who are Singles, also known as unmarried or divorcees. To qualify for the Single Grant Scheme, you must be at least 35 years old who are buying the resale flat to live on your own. Alternatively you can also apply with another Singles jointly up to maximum 4 applicants. Your income ceiling must be $3,000 and below if buying a 5-room or smaller resale flat. If you are living on your own, you can get $11,000 CPF subsidy. In joint applicants the subsidy will be $22,000. Singles who choose to live with their parents are eligible for the Higher-Tier Single Grant Scheme, which entitle you $20,000 CPF subsidy.

    If you are a first-timer SC who marries a second time and if your spouse has previously enjoyed a housing subsidy, you can apply for the Half Housing Grant Scheme, which entitle you CPF subsidy of $15,000. If you are buying a resale flat near parents/married child like in the Higher-Tier Family Grant, the CPF subsidy will increase to $20,000.

    In summary, CPF Housing Grant money can be used to offset the purchase price of the HDB resale flat from the open market, thereby reducing the housing loan amount a buyer needs to secure. You may consult reliable realtor for further advice on your eligibility to apply for CPF housing grant. A professional property agent should furnish you the latest Government, HDB and CPF rulings and transparent information such as recent transaction and current market trend to help you be well informed so that you can buy a HDB resale flat safely and at fair or subsidized price.

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  • Indoor Wheelchair Ramps

    Enabling wheelchair users to access any part of a building is essential – whether it is a residential or commercial property, this hands back independence. The best way to achieve this is via indoor wheelchair ramps, which help users to overcome obstacles such as staircases and door steps. There is a whole host of regulations that should ensure the freedom of movement for a wheelchair user, however unfortunately this isnt always the case, which is why these ramps are so important.

    Indoor wheelchair ramps are essential for allowing users to experience the theatre, cinema, restaurant or any public building that hasnt considered disable access in their building construction. Enabling those in a wheelchair to enjoy a high quality of life has never been easier.

    The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) is a piece of legislation that protects the civil rights of wheelchair and mobility scooter users. This states that users should have access to commercial buildings such as shops, cafes and banks, as well as in education, employment and public transport.

    Granting access to employees in wheelchairs has never been easier for businesses than with modern ramps and access systems. These ramps are incredibly lightweight yet strong and resilient, as well as being quick to set-up which is crucial in the event of a fire or emergency. There are further regulations that consider whether a building conforms to health and safety and provides a means of escape in case of emergency too – more information is available on our website.

    Another crucial aspect is to ensure that any wheelchair ramps are well maintained and serviced. This is so that when the time comes for the equipment to be used it doesnt let you down. This is obviously paramount for emergency escape scenarios. The most reputable of access providers will be able to repair and service ramps and related products to ensure the peace of mind of all parties concerned.

    The DDA states that an employer has a duty to ensure reasonable adjustments are made to ensure that an individual is not disadvantaged in the workplace. This includes the physical aspects of a workplace, such as access. Infringing this act can have serious ramifications for an employer, so if you are a business owner ensure you implement wheelchair ramps and access systems for your existing or potential wheelchair using employees.

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  • Professional Skip Hire Iver service

    Everyone knows just how important it is that one be efficient about storing and disposing of their garbage. This process is just as important in maintaining residential as well as commercial cleanliness and a general state of well being. Proper garbage disposal is extremely important in maintaining a healthy environment.

    People have different manners of disposing of their garbage. Some choose the hard way, while others prefer getting a Skip Hire Iver. This type of service can help you maintain a proper level of cleanliness on a residential, as well as commercial property. While on the subject, you might also be interested in Site Clearance Iver services. These services can help you properly get rid of garbage, waste, as well as other large materials that might stand in the way of your activity. In other words, this particular service can get your site ready for whatever activity you want to start.

    People use Skip Hire Iver services for different reasons. Some people care about the environment and do their best to maintain it garbage free, while others simply need a practical solution for their residential garbage disposal. By properly disposing of your garbage you will practically decrease the threat of getting ill or having your property contaminated in any way, but you`ll also be making sure that you`ve put your two cents into maintaining a cleaner, implicitly safer planet. Skip Hire Iver services can be of great help with disposing of your waste and making sure you provide your family or employees with a perfectly safe waste disposal service that will ensure an environmental-friendly space to leave and work. Skip Hire Iver services are extremely adaptable.

    They can work wonders with small amounts of waste, but they can also do a great job in disposing of significant amounts of garbage. Skip Hire Iver services will guarantee eco-friendly services that are strictly followed with each and every occasion. Employees are very thorough in taking each and every step as to provide the same quality service with each job. Once you hire this type of service, you no longer have to worry about safely disposing of your garbage, as you`ll have professionals taking care of everything in an environmental manner. Make sure you contribute to making the planet a better place, by hiring professional garbage disposal services. If you have an increased appreciation for this type of services, you`ll probably also be interested in the benefits of Site Clearance Iver. Site Clearance Iver services can be extremely useful, especially when you need to get a property ready for a big event. You might want to start conducting an activity, but feel like the property needs clearing. Also, you might be interested in selling a property, but feel like certain waste can ruin your chances. Whatever your reasons for wanting a property cleaned, Site Clearance Iver services can be extremely useful. Site Clearance Iver can help you dispose of different types of waste, and get your property ready for whatever you are trying to initiate. Whether you believe you can help with making the planet a safer place, or you simply need to have a property cleaned, you`ll want to read all about Skip Hire Iver and Site Clearance Iver services.

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  • Mortgage Loans After Bankruptcy What Options Are Available

    Bankruptcy has its uses, with crippling debts cleared the principal one. But there is also a price to pay, with many lenders preferring not to lend to those who have taken such action in the previous 2 or 3 years. So, what chance of getting a mortgage loan after bankruptcy?

    Actually, the chances are not all that bad, though it does take some time and effort to find a mortgage deal that is affordable. After that, the application needs to be very strong before there is any chance of getting mortgage approval despite bankruptcy.

    As negative as such a move is, there are still investment opportunities, loans and mortgages available to those who have been declared bankrupt. What exactly are the mortgage loan options available to those seeking to buy property? Well, there are 5 to consider.

    1. Bad Credit Mortgages

    As the name suggests, these mortgages are specifically designed for those with poor credit ratings. This includes those seeking mortgage loans after bankruptcy. Lenders who specialize in these charge higher interest to make the whole deal feasible.

    Also, the repayment term is usually longer to help make the mortgage more affordable, by lowering the size of the monthly repayments. This can help greatly in getting mortgage approval despite bankruptcy, though the regular criteria of a large income, healthy debt-to-income ratio and good job security are also important.

    2. Bankruptcy Mortgage

    Once again, the name gives the nature of this mortgage loan away. This option is specifically for those who have been declared bankrupt but are looking to buy a home and begin rebuilding their credit rating all at the same time.

    Under the terms of the loan, all existing debts can be forgiven or restructured, thus allowing the borrower to save the down payment and make mortgage loans after bankruptcy more attainable. The type of bankruptcy (which Chapter) affects the timing of the applications – anything from 1 to 4 years after bankruptcy.

    3. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

    One of the best options is to approach the FHA for mortgage funding, but there are some compromises to accept in the process. For a start, the choice of property is limited to those that are covered by the FHA scheme, so the property most desired is often excluded.

    Securing mortgage approval despite bankruptcy can be tricky, and while backing from the FHA makes it easier, with mortgage loans available just one year after bankruptcy (Chapter 7), it is still necessary to satisfy the criteria set by mortgage providers first.

    4. Standard Mortgage Loan

    It is also possible to get a standard mortgage loan after bankruptcy, but there are some conditions required to do so. For example, a mortgage note must be produced to confirm the status and details of the bankruptcy. The mortgage note highlights the fact that the loan is legitimate.

    However, securing mortgage approval despite bankruptcy comes at a price, with a down payment of at least 20% of the purchase price required, as long as any legal fees. This can translate to as much as $30,000, so it can take time to prepare to buy the property.

    5. Corporate and Industrial Mortgage

    This option is provided to those who wish to buy commercial property, rather than a new home. Getting a mortgage loan for these purposes is also affected by bankruptcy but as long as the business plan accompanying the mortgage application is sound, approval is possible.

    Repayment terms of the mortgage range from 2 years to 30 years, so the repayments can be kept very low, and very affordable.

    Lara Sawyer is the author of this article. She works successfully as a financial on Bad Credit Loans Guaranteed Approval. She publishes articles about Guaranteed Bad Credit Loans and others at http://www.fastguaranteedloans.com

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  • Commercial Mortgage Loans Hard Money Ltv Ratios

    Thinking about applying for a private commercial mortgage loan? You should know what LTV or Loan-to-Value ratio you could expect to be approved for.

    Keep in mind that private hard money commercial lending is equity based lending. LTVs are much lower than in conventional Lending.

    Land 50%

    Land loans are much more difficult to get funded today than they were just last year. Many lenders who gladly approved land loans in the recent past shun them now.
    Raw land loans are virtually impossible to get now-a-days, but if you have a piece of commercial property that is zoned and approved for development you can expect to be approved for a 50% LTV loan.

    Improved Land 60%

    Improved land is simply land with buildings on it. If the buildings are in decent shape but are vacant or under-performing an LTV in the 60% range is reasonable.

    Income Producing Buildings 65%

    Income producing buildings are the favorite assets of the private commercial mortgage lender. If you own, or are lucky enough to be acquiring a building with positive cash-flow, you should be approved for a loan of about 65% of the property value. Maybe a bit more if youre looking for a refinance loan.

    Construction 70%

    Private development money is quite hard to come-by in this credit market and if you do find a willing lender, be ready for the fact that most hard money construction loans are written for about 70% of the projects cost. The sponsors are going to have to come up with the other 30%.

    Privately funded hard money commercial mortgage loans are an indispensable part of commercial real estate lending today. But they dont call it hard money for nothing. Rates start at 10% and go up fast, broker and lender points will be added and the LTVs are usually lower than the borrower would like. When you need one, however, youll be glad hard money lenders are there, ready and willing to write checks.

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  • Ghaziabad Real Estate

    Ghaziabad is rapidly emerging as a hotspot real estate destination. It is alluring many big builders, developers and investors as all over India the property prices are soaring but here the prices are still within reach. It has become land of opportunities for many big and small builders as it is offering good return on investments. With many MNCs setting up their base in the city, more and more people are migrating here in search of livelihood. Ghaziabad realty market is not only attracting domestic but also global investors.

    In recent few years, development in the city is happening at a faster pace. There has been considerable improvement in roads, transport system and infrastructure in the city. Apart from that, well connectivity of the city with Delhi and availability of all basic amenities and lively lifestyle, are some of the reasons why people are moving to Ghaziabad. Also, those who cannot afford to buy homes in Delhi are considering Ghaziabad as an option to remain close to the city because here property prices are quiet affordable as compared to Delhi.

    Another factor that has surged the demand of residential property in Ghaziabad is setting up of some good engineering colleges and schools in the city. The city is also emerging as an educational hub and students all over India are coming here for their education. It is also expected that in coming few years many companies more good companies will infiltrate the city thus creating employment opportunities as well as more demand for more homes. Moreover areas like IndraPuram, Kaushambi, Vaishali, Vashundhara, and Shipra are emerging as posh localities of Ghaziabad and many people are looking out for housing options in these areas.

    Even though rental prices have soared up in the city the last few years still they are quiet less as compared to Delhi region. In Vaishali, a 2BHK apartment on rent can cost you up to Rs.6000 to 10000 whereas 3BHK can cost you up to Rs.7500 to 12000 and 4BHK can cost you up to Rs.10000 to 16000. In other areas like Kaushambi, Indirapuram, and Vasundhara, the rental prices for 2BHK are Rs.5000 to 12000, 3BHK can cost you up to Rs.8000 to 15000 and 4BHK can cost you up to Rs.10000 to 18000.The cost of rental values can vary depending upon the location.

    Ghaziabad property market is boasting high residential property sales and demand for commercial property is also rising. Many new commercial projects are lined up in the city. According to a report ADAEs Reliance Energy will launch a 1000 hectare Special Economic Zone in the city which will bring relief to traders from paying tax, excise and customs duty on buying of commercial property in Ghaziabad. Apart from that SVP Group, is planning to launch two new malls namely opulent mall and Gateway Mall which will house high profile retail ventures and bring more business to the city.

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  • How To Make Real Estate Decisions That Work

    You can make a lot of money through commercial real estate investments. However, you have to be patient. Take the time to research each property you’re considering as well as studying general commercial real estate principles. A lot of people just like yourself become successful at real estate investing by keeping informed and applying the tips in the following article. Stick to the advice presented below to help you succeed in the world of commercial real estate.

    Make sure you have enough cash flow available for you from family, friends and any professional lenders accessible to you. Contracts should be devised that either provide you with a fixed rate of interest on the loan repayment, or provide them with a percentage of what you make from the property.ty.

    Once you have signed a new lease for a property, your next priority should be your rent strategy. The effectiveness of your strategy will have a significant impact on the success of your new investment. Know how to plan for the rent you wish to charge before talking to a prospective tenant. This can help you keep targets and set a benchmark for your investment.

    You need to do this so that all terms match the pro forma, and also the rent roll. If you do not look over these key terms, you could find a term that was not considered in the rent roll, which could cause a change in the pro forma.

    Keep your commercial property occupied to pay the bills between tenants. Remember that if you have empty units, you have to take care of them. Maintenance costs on empty units can add up. If you have several properties open, you should ask yourself why, and attempt to correct the issues that may be driving out your tenants.

    In order to learn more about the commercial real estate market, find a website that caters to investors of different skill levels. Having a great base of knowledge will give you the tools to complete every part of the buying process with confidence, leading to solid decision making.

    It is critical when you are in the market for real estate that you know how to discern between a good deal and a not-so-good deal. People who deal in real estate on a professional level can spot a great deal immediately. They have their exit strategy already planned out, and therefore, they know when to quit a deal and when to stick it out. They have the experience to show them when repairs are necessary, how to correctly calculate their risk and which types of properties will help them to meet their financial goals.

    When you are buying or selling commercial real estate, always negotiate. Let people know what you want and make sure you are asking for a realistic price.

    If you follow the advice you have learned in this article, you will be well on your way to a great start. If you use the tips provided in this article, you will see why so many people are successful at commercial real estate, and you can start to reap the rewards.

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  • Who Invented Super Built Up

    All over India, super built-up concept has taken its place in real estate transactions. It is applicable to residential units, commercial premises and now to the open vacant land.

    Although, there is no place of such concept in any law for the time being inforce, the transactions cannot take place without it.

    Question is, who invented and why ? When builders started selling concepts instead of flats in early 80s, they were asked to sell it on carpet and no due charges were given for the extra amenities they had provided.

    The balcony was charged extra premium by the BMC and builder mounted balcony area on carpet area of the flat. And slowly he started adding areas of passage, common staircase, lift wells, compounds, terrace, gardens etc on the carpet area to maximise his profits.

    The permissible built up ratio was 18% that time and is still applicable. But the trend changed over the years. Builders started mounting 23% in early 90s then 30% in late 90s and nowadays majority of the builder sells nothing less then 33% to 45% on residential units, 50% to 200% on commercial premises. Government agencies like MHADA, SPPL, DDA and CIDCO are also following the trend.

    Landlords are also now very well informed on such practice and hence sell the open land to developers by adding 33% of saleable area.

    This is not the practice in Mumbai alone. Ahmedabad, Delhi, Rajkot, Bangalore, Pune, Nashik, Kolkatta, Chennai and elsewhere in India are following the trend.

    When Mr. Deepak Parikh, chairman, HDFC, boldly said in CREDAI meeting at Bangalore that the sale must be on carpet area, no developer came forward to announce his intention to sell at carpet area except Mantri Group. CREDAI has itself imposed code of conduct which clearly says that the carpet area must be mentioned in sale agreement. The Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India failed to impose such code.

    In Model Agreement under Maharashtra Apartment Ownership Act, it is mandatory to mention carpet area in sq.mtrs. And the model agreement is mandatory to be followed for entering into an agreement. But sellers never follows the model Agreement, instead drafts one sided agreement to protect them and attack the purchaser without any fault.

    A thought was coined by MCHI office bearer, in a talk show on some channel recently, that we give extra amenities, extra open space, extra lifts and other amenities, we are charging for that. And super built-up area is just a method for calculating the rates. Either you pay Rs. 2600/- as super built up or Rs. 3800/- on carpet, my flat will cost Rs. 18,00,000/- for 2 BHK.

    Open spaces are mandatory to be left alone in the Development Rules of BMC. The builder has to keep such open space. By just decorating and using it as USP for the project, it doesn’t give him any reason to mount on the carpet.

    It is already written in DC Rules and proven that lift wells and staircase do not count in the total constructed FSI, hence charging such area on carpet is not justified.

    Compounds also cannot be charged on carpet, because anything open to sky is not saleable. Non saleable areas cannot be sold by proxy. It cannot be counted in area of occupation. Also, open car parkings are been sold, hence builder should not charge the open compounds twice, once sold as car parking and secondly mounting such areas on carpet. Even open car parking cannot be sold.

    Lastly, the customer who register their documents on super built-up area pays higher property tax, society charges for life time. He pays the taxes for lifetime on the area which he is not occupying and only mentioned on paper. Higher stamp duty and Registration charges on super built-up area is also not justified.

    It was indeed a great concept two decades ago, but now when transparencies are discussed, the seller must be Caveat Emptor. Let the buyer be beware of everything which he is paying for. Founder Convenor Mr. K.V. Satyamurthy, FAAI rightly raised the voice as “Maap Mein Paap Nahin”. An upcoming rating agency sent a SMS to this author, said “Earth will swell 45%, if developed by a Mumbai developer”

    [Counter arguments are invited. Just mail on ]

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  • History Of Carbon Monoxide

    There is a long history of the carbon monoxide compound that dates back nearly eight hundred years. While the compound exists naturally and has likely been present since early in the earth’s formation, it wasn’t until a 14th century Spanish chemist named Arnaldus de Villanova described the gases from burning wood, which we today know as carbon monoxide. Almost three hundred years later, a Belgian chemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont, almost lost his life while inadvertently inhaling a carbon dioxide and monoxide mixture.

    By the late 1700’s, a French chemist named Lassone was able to take a coal material and heat up zinc oxide, which emitted a then-unknown gas that made a blue flame in his laboratory – carbon monoxide. It is unclear whether a chemist from England named William Cruikshank clearly identified carbon monoxide first at the turn of the 19th century or another English chemist, Joseph Priestly, did so a few years earlier when he identified both carbon dioxide and monoxide.

    Poison value well known

    While the early studies of carbon monoxide did indeed indicate that it was a poison to humans in many cases, it wasn’t until the mid-1800’s that French physiologist Claude Bernard specifically studied the deadly characteristics of the gas. For several centuries, many scientists have known of the poisonous nature of carbon monoxide. Tiny doses or naturally occurring amounts of carbon monoxide typically cause vomiting, nausea, an unnatural feeling of exhilaration and other effects. Of course as the amount of carbon monoxide increases, can cause unconsciousness as well as severe intestinal occlusions and eruptions. Ultimately, a high enough level of carbon monoxide can cause death.

    the action of carbon monoxide poisoning is a relatively simple process. Oxygen molecules enter the lungs and are carried by red blood cells. the oxygen links up with an iron atom in a molecule called oxyhemoglobin. It is later freed by this molecule to aid other cell functions throughout the body that produce energy. When carbon monoxide enters the body this “transference chain” of oxygen is broken. Carbon monoxide bonds with the hemoglobin as does oxygen but it is much more stable (as carbonmonoxyhemoglobin) and lasts longer than oxygen, thus pushing out oxygen and essentially suffocating cells in the body. Since much less oxygen enters the body, less energy is produced and the body is poisoned.

    As a cause of death

    Carbon monoxide is so prevalent that, throughout the world, more people die of it than any other type of poison. Since it has no smell and is transparent, it is very hard to detect. Luckily, modern technology has caught up and carbon monoxide detectors are produced in huge volumes for home, office and industrial use. they are installed the same way that smoke detectors are. Some typical sources of carbon monoxide are unventilated charcoal fires, broken gas furnaces or stove connections and, of course, automotive and other combustible engine exhaust. this last example is the most prevalent emission of the gas in the modern world today. Often, in such overpopulated places as Mexico City or New York, car emissions are the most common carbon monoxide source with unusually high levels. those who smoke tobacco also have a direct interaction with carbon monoxide. Nearly ten percent of all of the body’s hemoglobin is locked out by carbon monoxide for those who regularly smoke a pack or more a day of cigarettes.

    Since the most common form of carbon monoxide emission is from cars, it is important to note the amount of carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide that emerges and how it happens. Both the temperature and the amount of oxygen in place during the reaction that generates carbon monoxide will determine its amount. Typically, carbon monoxide can form when there is little oxygen and combustion takes place at lower temperatures, so when there is more oxygen present and the temperature is higher, greater amounts are generated.

    Ironically, for a number of years following the advent of the Industrial Revolution carbon monoxide was used a fuel for automobiles in parts of the world where gasoline could not be easily found. In these places, charcoal-burning devices were integrated into the combustion engine, so that when coal was burned, a high concentration of carbon monoxide was piped directly to the carburetor to be fired to move engine pistons, etc. the gas has also been used to euthanize animals and humans over the years, but the practice has largely fallen off in recent times. Carbon monoxide has also been used to drive oxygen out of substances to reduce them to their purest form. As an example, if iron oxide is used as a source material, and carbon monoxide is forced to interact with it, pure iron will result from the process.

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